An Evaluation of Groundwater Potential for Sustainable Water Supply on KNUST Campus, Ghana

Keywords: Groundwater potential, potential yield, groundwater quality, water demand, water supply


Many boreholes have been drilled on KNUST campus to aid meet water supply demands due to the rising population and inadequate water supply from Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). Unfortunately, these boreholes are managed individually by units without any institutional scheme leading to water shortages at some units whilst other boreholes are underutilized. Therefore, this study seeks to assess the groundwater potential from the boreholes against the water demands on campus towards a sustainable efficient water supply. The methodology employed involved mapping of all the campus boreholes, acquisition of available data on the boreholes, carrying out pumping tests on selected boreholes to validate their yields and water quality suitability for drinking, and administering questionnaires for water demand estimation. The study results indicate that there are 112 functional boreholes on campus; these boreholes generally have suitable drinking water quality except in few areas where the levels of colour, turbidity, pH, iron, and total coliform are outside the recommended WHO guideline values. The estimated groundwater volume that can be abstracted from the boreholes is 8.04 million l/day when pumped for 16 hours a day. This is far higher than the current estimated water demand of 4.60 million l/day and the projected future water demand of 7.95 million l/day for 2029. Thus, the existing boreholes on campus can be relied on solely for sustainable water supply for the next ten years if managed together as a system.

Author Biographies

Emmanuel Egyin Hayford

Emmanuel Egyin Hayford is a recent graduate of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and
Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana with an MSc degree in Water Resources Engineering and
Management and a BSc degree in Geological Engineering. His research interests include, but are not
limited to, sustainable groundwater management, Groundwater-surface water interactions, water
quality management and supply modeling, and hydrologic modeling.

Prof. Emmanuel Kwame Appiah-Adjei, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Emmanuel Kwame Appiah-Adjei is an Associate Professor at the Department of Geological
Engineering in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi,
Ghana. His research interest is in hydrogeology with emphasis on groundwater management and
has published extensively in many reputable journals. He is a member of the Ghana Institution of
Engineering (GhIE) and has served as a Consulting Hydrogeologist on many groundwater
development projects for communities, households and institutions.

How to Cite
Egyin Hayford, E., & Appiah-Adjei, E. K. (2022). An Evaluation of Groundwater Potential for Sustainable Water Supply on KNUST Campus, Ghana. Journal of Science and Technology, 40(3), 1 - 17.