Efficacy of Disinfectants Commonly used in some Medical Facilities in Kumasi, Ghana
Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are known to be responsible for prolonging hospital admissions and increasing mortality rates worldwide. Disinfectants are used to clean surfaces to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens responsible for HAI in medical facilities. This study sought to determine the efficacy of disinfectants prepared and used in some medical facilities in the Kumasi metropolis. Forty-two disinfectants were sampled from the sanitary departments of fourteen health facilities selected in the Kumasi Metropolis. The antimicrobial activity of the selected disinfectants was evaluated on test microorganisms using the Agar well diffusion method and Chick martin tests. All 42 disinfectants sampled from the health facilities were identified to be different brands and concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solution. At the stated concentrations of dilution (1.2 -1.8 % v/v) of use, none of the 42 disinfectants showed any zone of inhibition against the test organisms (E. faecalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans) used. The study revealed that the concentration of sodium hypochlorite was lower than what was stated on the manufacturer’s label. However, the prepared concentrations (between 2.0 and 6.0 % v/v) of the disinfectants showed antimicrobial activity against the test organisms. The study has shown that at the stated concentrations of use in various health facilities, the selected disinfectants did not display any antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and therefore cannot prevent the transmission of HAI in the medical facilities. At the stated concentration, thick perfumed and Madar bleach produced better antimicrobial activity. Higher concentrations prepared of at least 2.0 % v/v of selected disinfectants are recommended to achieve effective disinfection in health facilities.